Limitations and Weaknesses of Research Design
Staying focused on a wealth of data. As a research analyzing a very complex, very dynamic phenomenon of great importance for society, this research was crafted as a delicate balance between two opposites: (1) insight to just a fraction of data and (2) too much data to analyze. While, from my perspective, the balance seems to be well established, from the perspective of other stakeholders, a different balance may seem more suitable. Combining the outcomes of this research with the results of similar research, especially similar future research, is probably the best approach to address this limitation.
Bias. As a phenomenographic researcher working for the ASA, there is a risk that my personal or ASA bias might influence the research. Since per social constructivism, perceived reality is a social construct that exists on an individual and group/organizational level, my goal is to recognize how my and the ASA’s realities look and how the two realities compare with the realities of other individuals and organizations involved in this research. Ultimately, the goal is not to neutralize them but to recognize and combine them with the realities of other stakeholders.
The main steps to address bias are the following:
- Actively hold back my assumptions and theories that I would get a better insight into how the phenomenon is understood by respondents (Sandbergh, 1997) without the influence of personal perspectives, material world, and subjects (Chan, Fung, & Chien, 2013).
- Use phenomenographic research to gather insight into the realities of other stakeholders and, through follow-up interviews, ask them to evaluate how I interpreted their reality.
- Share a part of my findings with selected leaders and the public and ask them for feedback.
The data from those four clinical professions will allow me to define the main themes and interactions among different professions while remaining focused and on scope; however, insight from other professions will be very valuable. Therefore, future research should include perspectives from the following:
- Other clinical groups involved in care, such as operating room nurses, surgical technicians, pharmacists, and nonclinical professions like IT and management
- Students—future professionals and residents
Chan, Z. C., Fung, Y.-l., & Chien, W.-t. (2013). Bracketing in phenomenology: only undertaken in the data collection and analysis process? The Qualitative Report, 18(30).
Sandbergh, J. (1997). Are phenomenographic results reliable? Higher Education Research & Development, 16(2), 203-212.