Literature states that there is “no prescriptive sample size for a phenomenographic study” (Yates, Partridge, & Bruce, 2012, p. 103). Bowden (2005) suggested that the sample should be large enough to find sufficient variation in perceptions, but small enough that the amount of data is manageable. A concept close to sufficient variation in perceptions is the saturation point. Research will achieve the saturation point when additional perceptions cannot be detected (Kaapu & Tiainen, 2012).
Following that recommendation, I plan to interview 5-8 members of each of the four groups: physician anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists (NA), anesthesiologist assistants (AA) and surgeons.. Optimally, the majority of participants (~60%) will be members and leaders who are clinically active. The rest will be CPD professionals and staff leaders (for example, a CEO).
The questions below were selected to provide the critical variation among participants. Those variations will be categorized and organized in an outcome space (Cope, 2004).
- Can you please reflect on your previous experience of working in multi-professional teams?
- How would you describe IPL and QIE? For example, what is the purpose of each? Is it the same purpose?
- What are the differences or similarities?
- How about benefits and challenges?
- Can technology help us address those challenges, or enhance the benefits? If yes, how?
- What, in your opinion, are the most important benefits and challenges associated with perioperative surgical home (PSH)?
Bowden, J. A. (2005). Reflections on the phenomenographic research process. In J. A. Bowden & P. Green (Eds.), Doing Developmental Phenomenography. Melbourne, Victoria: RMIT University Press.
Cope, C. (2004). Ensuring validity and reliability in phenomenographic research using the analytical framework of a structure of awareness. Qualitative Research Journal, 4(2), 5-18.
Kaapu, T., & Tiainen, T. (2012). Phenomenography: Alternative Research Approach for Studying the Diversity of Users’ Understandings. Paper presented at the European Conference on Information Systems, http://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2012/29.
Yates, C., Partridge, H., & Bruce, C. (2012). Exploring information experiences through phenomenography. Library and Information Research, 36(112), 96-119.